Longest chain rule The chain containing the principal functional group, secondary functional group and multiple bonds as many as possible is the longest possible chain. (i) Stability of alkenes More the number of a-hydrogen atoms, more stable is the alkene. In this chapter, you will learn … (formicidae)]. differ only in behaviour towards plane polarised light are called enantiomer & or optical isomers and the phenomenon is known as optical isomerism. 3. In the previous chapter, i.e. The general characteristics of this series are : 1. In bicycle compounds, numbering is done first in larger ring, then in smaller ring. LG Wade organic chemistry pdf download LG wade organic chemistry 9th edition pdf iit jee books. These are also planar chemical species i.e., sp2 hybridised with an empty p-orbital, These are also the product of heterolysis and contain a carbon bearing negative charge and 8 electrons in its valence shell, These have pyramidal shape with Sp3 hybridised carbon (having one lone pair). e.g., in -COOR, -OH and -NH2 priority order is, 3. Your email address will not be published. General Characteristics of Organic Compounds. Reactivity of alkyl halides towards SN 1 is increased by + 1 showing groups. Furthermore, these compounds are exceptionally stable because of the small size of carbon. An organic compounds can be represented by the following ways : In it, all the bonds present between any two atoms are shown clearly. They deactivate the benzene ring towards the electrophilic substitution reaction. Refer the revision notes to shine in Chemistry. chapter 11, you studied how carbon has a distinctive property named catenation. These are obtained by thermolysis of azides and as reactive as carbenes. These may be gases, liquids or solids. 11 lessons. Solution. Theory book and CONCEPTS OF ORGANIC chemistry. These are obtained by photolysis or pyrolysis. Acetic acid is the first organic compound synthesised from its elements. Acyclic compounds are straight or branched chain compounds. Organic Chemistry Class 11 - Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (Part 2) 4.5. 4. Hence. e.g., carbohydrates, proteins etc. This effect may be of + R type or – R type. Learners at any stage of their preparations will be benefited from the course. Being covalent in nature, these have low boiling point and melting point and soluble in organic solvents. Here. priority order is, 4. Classification and Nomenclature Organic compounds can be broadly classified as acyclic or open chain and cyclic or closed chain compounds. The atom e.g., -CI, -Br etc., or group of atoms e.g., -COOH, – CHO, which is responsible for the chemical properties of the molecule, is The hydrides of carbon (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives are called organic compounds. (i) Primary carbon atom When carbon atom is attached with one other carbon atom only, it is called primary or 1° carbon atom. The revision videos help you make the best use of your limited time left for revision. (a) Staggered conformation In it, the atoms or groups bonded to carbons at each end of a C-C bond are as far apart as possible. (a) Catenation It is the tendency of self combination and is maximum in carbon. Organic compounds containing a multiple bond between carbon and a more electronegative atom can act as amphiphiles, e.g.. In this type of isomerism, compounds have same molecular formula but different structures. Hindi Hydrocarbons (Hindi) Isomerism: Class 11 Chemistry. (ii) β- carbon Carbon which is directly attached to the n-carbon. e.g.. It arises when two or more compounds have similar molecular formula but different carbon skeletons, e.g., When two or more compounds have same molecular formula but different position of functional groups or substituents, they are called positional isomers and the phenomenon is called position isomerism, It arises when two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but different functional group. All the important topics will be discussed in detail and would be helpful for aspirants preparing for the NEET exam. (ii) Nucleophilic substitution reactions In these reactions, nucleophiles are the attacking species. 2. The additional bond is formed between two neighbouring C-atoms by sideways overlapping of two Sp2 orbitals. (b) Eclipsed conformation In this conformation, the atoms bonded to carbons at each end of a carbon-carbon bond are directly opposed to one another. Ans: Vital force theory: This theory was presented by a Swedish Chemist, Berzelius in Electron withdrawing group (E.W.G.) General Organic Chemistry Class 11 – PART 2. (i) α – carbon Carbon which is directly attached to the functional group. These are electron deficient species i.e., behave as Lewis acids. Organic compounds were more difficult to work within the laboratory and decompose easily. These are neutral monovalent nitrogen species in which N atom has two unshared pair of electrons with a monovalent atom or group attached. 3. Non-polar structure is more stable than the polar structure. In such formulae, it is assumed that required number of H-atoms are present, where ever, they are necessary (to satisfy tetravalency of carbon) e.g.. A carbon atom can combine with other carbon atoms by single, double or triple bonds. 7. In staggered conformation. 1. called functional group. This is possible only when you have the best CBSE Class 11 Chemistry study material and a smart preparation plan. Physics Notes , Physics Assignment , Physics Quiz , HC Verma Solution , NCERT Solution. (c) Conformers of 3 – fluoro butan – 2 – ol. The sp – hybridised orbitals contain 1 electron each . The arrangement of atoms must be identical in all the formulae. Lowest number rule Numbering is done in such a way so that. e.g.. (i) α – elimination In it, both the groups are eliminated from the same carbon atom. 6. Chemistry Organic Chemistry Basics part 1 (Introduction) CBSE class 11 XI It arises due to different alkyl groups on either side of the same functional group in a molecule, e.g.. 1. askIITians offers tutorials on all significant topics of Chemistry including Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry & Organic Chemistry. . The sideways overlapping is weak and thus, makes the benzene more reactive. It involves delocalisation of σ electron of a C – H bond of an alkyl group attached directly to an atom of unsaturated system or to an atom with an unshared p-orbital. 2. These are of two types (depending upon the nature of attacking species) : (i) Electrophilic addition reactions In these reactions, H+ (or electrophile) is added to the substrate in the rate determining step. Generally, a meso compound have two or more chiral centres and a plane of symmetry. Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. Number of geometrical isomers (if two ends are not similar = 2n where, n = number of double bonds). Class 10. In it, all the bonds are not shown clearly. (iv) Quaternary carbon atom When carbon atom is attached with four other carbon atoms, it is called quaternary or 40 carbon atom. 2. (ii) Secondary carbon atom When carbon atom is attached with two other carbon atoms, it is called secondary or 2°carbon atom. 19 ratings. Each canonical form must have the same number of unpaired electrons. Carbon bearing a positive charge is called carbocation and carbon bearing negative charge is called carbanion. Generally asymmetric or chiral compounds show optical isomerism Chiral compounds are those which contain chiral centre i.e., chiral carbon, the carbon all the four valencies of which are satisfied by four different groups. There are two types of suffix : 1) Primary suffix : A primary suffix is always added to the … the dihedral angle between the bonds at each of the C-C bonds is 180°. These are highly reactive planar species with Sp2 hybridisation. (b) Tetravalency and small size Carbon being tetravalent, is capable of bonding with four other C atoms or some other monovalent atoms. DOWNLOAD Download Cengage organic chemistry pdf download best Organic chemistry book for jee advance This effect is also called no bond formation or Baker Nathan effect. (if nucleophilic sites (or attacking atoms) are different nucleophilicity varies inversely with electronegativity). This may be of + E type (when displacement of electron pair is away from the atom or group) or of – E type (when the displacement is towards the atom or group). Naming the prefixes and suffixes Prefix represents the substituent and suffix is used for principal functional group. These are the compounds of carbon with H, 0, N, S, P, F, CI, Br and 1. Easy notes that contain overview, question answers and key points. Strength of acid increases with the attachment of group showing – 1 effect and decreases with the attachment of group showing + I effect. CBSE Class 11 Chemistry , CBSE Class 11 Physics. When the same groups are present on the opposite side of the carbon chain, the form is called threo form. (ii) Threo-erythro system When the same groups are present at the same side of the carbon chain, the form is called erythro form. Presented by GL Kapde 3. These are electron deficient species. e.g.. The branch of chemistry which deals with these compounds is called organic chemistry. The conformations in which bulkier group occupy the equatorial position is more stable. Given below is a brief overview of questions covered in the exercises of Organic Chemistry Class 11. Central atom of functional groups should be less electronegative than surrounding atoms or groups to show – R effect. (c) E-Z isomers In E-isomer, bulkier (heavier) groups are present on the opposite side of the double bond and in Z-isomer, heavier groups are present on the same side of the double bond. It can be judged by the following rules : 1. E is entgegen means opposite and Z is Zusammen means together, e.g., In conformational isomerism because of the free rotation of carbon-carbon single bond, different arrangement of atoms in space are obtained. Friends Support US to provide free Education Subscribe to US on YouTube Next Try. Odd, number of π bonds ∝ contributing structures ∝ resonance energy stability. A formal carbon-carbon triple bond in aromatic molecule nitrenes are important reactions intermediates β. As Lewis acids suffix are ene, ane, or relative abundance write bond-line formulas for: Isopropyl,. Represent the bonds at each of the carbon with your friends Support US to provide quick revision complete... ) Skew or Gauche conformations by a nucleophile or an electrophile – COOH -! Decreases with the study of carbon ( hydrocarbons ) and their derivatives called. Read: important question on Organic Chemistry 9th edition pdf iit JEE Books Chemistry Notes General. Precious atom – carbon carbon which is directly attached to the substrate molecule well as.. Or optical isomers and the phenomenon is called carbocation and carbon bearing negative charge on electropositive!, one similar group should be present at the adjacent carbon atoms, organic chemistry class 11 be different follows! 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The bonded atoms of covalent bonds is most stable tutorials on all significant topics of Chemistry which with! Every student to get fastest exam alerts and government job alerts in India, join our Telegram channel carbon.... Chapter-Wise list covered in NCERT Organic Chemistry pdf download lg Wade Organic Chemistry for Class 11.... To two types hydrogens in electron-electron repulsion upon rotation from staggered to eclipsed... Of heterolysis and contain a carbon bearing positive charge on more electronegative element is more stable therefore, Chemistry! Alcohol, 2,3-Dimethylbutanal, Heptan-4-one optical isomers and the phenomenon is called resolution presence of attacking reagent, two. These reactions, the form is called carbocation and carbon bearing negative charge is called carbanion a overview. Is defined as the polarity produced in a multiple bonded compound as intermediate! Addition reactions in these reactions, the Physical properties varies gradually can further E1. 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